Hysterectomy and Oopherectomy
A hysterectomy removes the female sexual organ. Hysterectomy in female to male transsexuals can increase the effects of testosterone and potentially decrease the chance of cancer.
A hysterectomy is often recommended for female-to-male transsexuals within 5 years of commencing hormone treatment. Although the recommendation for hysterectomy in FTM individuals is not set in stone, there is evidence that long-term testosterone HRT increases the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is connected with increased growth of the uterine lining which may result in endometrial or ovarian cancer. However, the long-term effects of testosterone treatment have not been fully discovered so there is some debate upon the necessity of hysterectomy for FTMs. Nevertheless, as a safety consideration, hysterectomy is often recommended early on in the transition process.
In addition, hysterectomy/oopherectomy may increase the beneficial effects of testosterone treatment and lower the amount of testosterone needed to maintain adequate hormone levels. This is because removal of the ovaries reduces the competition between the female hormones (estrogen) and the additional male hormones (testosterone) that are present in the body.